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International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set

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International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set


The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set offers surface marine data from ships (merchant, navy, research) and buoys spanning the past three centuries.

Product type


Update frequency



Oct 2, 2022

Delivery method


ICOADS offers a simple gridded monthly summary products for 2° latitude x 2° longitude boxes back to 1800 (and 1°x1° boxes since 1960).

It contains observations such as, wave height, sea temperature, wind speed, from many different observing systems encompassing the evolution of measurement technology over hundreds of years, ICOADS is probably the most complete and heterogeneous collection of surface marine data in existence.

Cite as: Research Data Archive/ International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3, Individual Observations. Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory. Accessed† dd mmm yyyy.
(†Please fill in the "Accessed" date with the day, month, and year (e.g. - 5 Aug 2011) you last accessed the data from the RDA.)


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